Acetic acid , CH 3 COOH, has been known to humankind for thousands of years (at least in water solution). It is the compound that gives the sourness to vinegar and is produced by the bacterial oxidation of ethanol in wine . Household vinegar contains about five percent acetic acid. Acetic acid is important in the metabolic processes of humans and, indeed, of all animals and plants. In these processes, the CH 3 CO (acetyl) group of the acetic acid molecule is attached to a large biochemical molecule called coenzyme A ; the entire compound is known as acetyl coenzyme A . In the metabolism of food materials (the body’s conversion of food to energy), the carbon atoms of carbohydrates , fats, and, to some degree, proteins are converted to acetyl groups that are bonded to coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. The acetyl groups of acetyl coenzyme A are then converted, by means of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation ( see metabolism ), to energy (in the form of adenosine triphosphate , or ATP) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which is exhaled. Not all the acetyl groups of acetyl coenzyme A of an organism is converted to energy. Some is used to synthesize fatty acids , terpenes , steroids , and other needed molecules. The carboxylic acids that occur in fats have an even number of carbon atoms because they are synthesized entirely from the two-carbon acetyl units of acetyl coenzyme A.
Decanoic acid acts as a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist at therapeutically relevant concentrations, in a voltage- and subunit-dependent manner, and this is sufficient to explain its antiseizure effects.  This direct inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission by decanoic acid in the brain contributes to the anticonvulsant effect of the MCT ketogenic diet .  Decanoic acid and the AMPA receptor antagonist drug perampanel act at separate sites on the AMPA receptor, and so it is possible that they have a cooperative effect at the AMPA receptor, suggesting that perampanel and the ketogenic diet could be synergistic.